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All Types of Fractures Treatment in Bharatpur
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What is Fracture?
Fracture is the medical term for a broken bone. A cracked bone is also considered a fracture.
Fractures are common, the average person has two during a lifetime. They occur when the physical force exerted on the bone is stronger than the bone itself.
Your risk of fracture depends, in part, on your age. Broken bones are very common in childhood, although children’s fractures are generally less complicated than fractures in adults. As you age, your bones become more brittle and you are more likely to suffer fractures from falls that would not occur when you were young.
Types of Fractures
Bones are rigid, but they do bend or “give” somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far.
The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bone’s breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter.
If the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin, or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an “open” fracture. This type of fracture is particularly serious because once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone can occur.
There is a range of fracture types, including:
Avulsion fracture – a muscle or ligament pulls on the bone, fracturing it.
Comminuted fracture – the bone is shattered into many pieces.
Compression (crush) fracture – generally occurs in the spongy bone in the spine. For example, the front portion of a vertebra in the spine may collapse due to osteoporosis.
Fracture dislocation – a joint becomes dislocated, and one of the bones of the joint has a fracture.
Greenstick fracture – the bone partly fractures on one side, but does not break completely because the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children, whose bones are softer and more elastic.
Hairline fracture – a partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type of fracture is harder to detect with routine x-rays.
Impacted fracture – when the bone is fractured, one fragment of bone goes into another.
Intraarticular fracture – where the break extends into the surface of a joint
Longitudinal fracture – the break is along the length of the bone.
Oblique fracture – a fracture that is diagonal to a bone’s long axis.
Pathological fracture – when an underlying disease or condition has already weakened the bone, resulting in a fracture (bone fracture caused by an underlying disease/condition that weakened the bone).
Spiral fracture – a fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.
Stress fracture – more common among athletes. A bone breaks because of repeated stresses and strains.
Torus (buckle) fracture – bone deforms but does not crack. More common in children. It is painful but stable.
Transverse fracture – a straight break right across a bone.
What Are the Symptoms of a Broken Bone?
Signs and symptoms of a broken bone include:
- Swelling or bruising over a bone
- Deformity of an arm or leg
- Pain in the injured area that gets worse when the area is moved or pressure is applied
- An inability to bear weight on the affected foot, ankle, or leg
- Loss of function in the injured area
- In open fractures, bone protruding from the skin
Causes of Fractures
The most common causes of fractures are:
Trauma : A fall, a motor vehicle accident, or a tackle during a football game can all result in fractures.
Osteoporosis : This disorder weakens bones and makes them more likely to break.
Overuse : Repetitive motion can tire muscles and place more force on bone. This can result in stress fractures. Stress fractures are more common in athletes.
Diagnosis and treatment
A doctor will carry out a physical examination, identify signs and symptoms, and make a diagnosis.
The patient will be interviewed – or friends, relatives, and witnesses if the patient cannot communicate properly – and asked about circumstances that caused the injury or may have caused it.
Doctors will often order an X-ray. In some cases, an MRI or CT scan may also be ordered.
Bone healing is a natural process which, in most cases, will occur automatically. Fracture treatment is usually aimed at making sure there is the best possible function of the injured part after healing.
Immobilization – as soon as the bones are aligned they must stay aligned while they heal. This may include:
Plaster casts or plastic functional braces – these hold the bone in position until it has healed.
Metal plates and screws – current procedures may use minimally invasive techniques.
Intra-medullary nails – internal metal rods are placed down the center of long bones. Flexible wires may be used in children.
External fixators – these may be made of metal or carbon fiber; they have steel pins that go into the bone directly through the skin. They are a type of scaffolding outside the body.
Usually, the fractured bone area is immobilized for 2-8 weeks. The duration depends on which bone is affected and whether there are any complications, such as a blood supply problem or an infection.
Healing – if a broken bone has been aligned properly and kept immobile, the healing process is usually straightforward.
Osteoclasts (bone cells) absorb old and damaged bone while osteoclasts (other bone cells) are used to create new bone.
Callus is new bone that forms around a fracture. It forms on either side of the fracture and grows toward each end until the fracture gap is filled. Eventually, the excess bone smooths off and the bone is as it was before.
The patient’s age, which bone is affected, the type of fracture, as well as the patient’s general health are all factors which influence how rapidly the bone heals. If the patient smokes regularly, the healing process will take longer.
Physical therapy – after the bone has healed, it may be necessary to restore muscle strength as well as mobility to the affected area. If the fracture occurred near or through a joint, there is a risk of permanent stiffness or arthritis – the individual may not be able to bend that joint as well as before.
Surgery – if there was damage to the skin and soft tissue around the affected bone or joint, plastic surgery may be required.
Treatment also focuses on providing the injured bone with the best circumstances for optimum healing (immobilization).
For the natural healing process to begin, the ends of the broken bone need to be lined up – this is known as reducing the fracture.
The patient is usually asleep under a general anesthetic when fracture reduction is done. Fracture reduction may be done by manipulation, closed reduction (pulling the bone fragments), or surgery.